Toxicity levels in treated oil cakes of Simarouba glauca DC.

  • Shafigul Shafiqi Shaikh Zayed University Khost Afghanistan.
  • Qiamudin Abad Shaikh Zayed University Khost Afghanistan
  • Qasimullah ryan Shaikh Zayed University Khost Afghanistan
Keywords: Toxicit, levels, treated oil, cakes, Simarouba, glauca, DC

Abstract

Simarouba glauca an exotic species introduced to India has potential to yield oil, used for Biofuel production and oil cake for feed and manure.  The cake is rich in protein, amino acids and other organic and inorganic nutrients. It is   unfit for use as it contains toxic compounds like alkaloids, Phenolics, Phytic acid and Saponin and other anti-nutritional factors.   Therefore experiments were conducted to remove the toxins and make oil cake fit for use as animal feed or for human consumption. Different treatments , boiling, roasting, autoclaving,  soaking with water, methanol extraction, fermentation, acetic acid, sodium hydroxide, roasting + ammonia, hydrochloric acid were given to the cake and effect of these on toxic contents of the cake were studied. There was significant decrease in the levels of toxic constituents due to treatments. Methanol and roasting + ammonia treatments were most effective in removing the alkaloids from the cake. Phenolics were reduced to a very low level by roasting + ammonia and fermentation treatments. Acetic acid treatment reduced the phytic acid to the lowest level over all other treatments. Saponins were completely removed by hydrochloric acid treatment.

Results showed that it is possible to remove the toxic compounds from the cake and retain nutrients by different treatments by a programmed treatments schedule.

Author Biographies

Shafigul Shafiqi, Shaikh Zayed University Khost Afghanistan.

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, 

Qiamudin Abad, Shaikh Zayed University Khost Afghanistan

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy,

Qasimullah ryan, Shaikh Zayed University Khost Afghanistan

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, 

References

ABOU-ARAB, A. A. AND ABU-SALEM, F.M., 2010, Nutritional quality of Jatropha curcas seeds and effect of some physical and chemical treatments on their anti-nutritional factors. African J. of Food Sci. 4(3): pp. 93-103.
ALTSCHUL, A.M., 1950, processed plant protein food stuffs, Academic press, New York.
BASU, P.K.I.A.S., 2010, National oilseeds and vegetables oils development Board Ministry of Agri., Govt. of India. 5th R&D Report on Tree Borne Oilseeds.
BEHURA, N.C., DEHURI, P.K.,MISHRA, S.K. AND SAMAL, P.C., 2008, Processing of Simaruba (Simarouba glauca) oilcake for detoxification and its Evaluation in Broiler Chicken . Animal Nutrition and Feed tech., 8: 245-252.
GESTETNER, B., BIRK, Y., BONDI, A., TENCER, Y., 1966, A method for the determination of sapogenin and saponin contents in soybeans. Phytochemistry 5: 803–806.
GOVINDARAJU, K., DARUKESHWARA, J. AND SRIVASTAVA, A. K., 2009, Studies on protein characteristics and toxic constituents of Simarouba glauca oilseed meal. Food and Chem. Toxicology, 47(6): 1327–1332.
JAIPURIA, M.K., 1996, Trail of exotic species in Behar, Simarouba glauca. Ind. J. Forestry, 19 (1):58-68.
JOSHI, S. AND JOSHI, S., 2002, Oil tree Simarouba glauca DC. University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp. 88.
LASSAK, E.V., POLONSKY, J. AND JACQUEMIN, H., 1977, 5 Hydroxycanthin-6-one from Simarouba amara. Phytoche., 16: 1126–1127.
NARASIMHAN, S. AND MEHROTRA, S., 2003, Spectrophotometric method for estimation of alkaloids precipitable with Dragendorff’s reagent in plant materials. J. of AOAC International 86: 1124–1127.
NOVOD., 2007, National oilseeds and vegetables oils development Board Ministry of Agri., Govt. of India, 23th annual report.
RAMACHANDRAN, S., SUDHEER, K. S., CHRISTIAN, L., CARLOS, R. S. AND ASHOK P., 2006, Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-970 Curitiba-PR, Brazil.
RATH, S.P., SRINIVASULU, L. AND MAHAPATRA, S.K., 1987. Investigation on Simarouba glauca - A new oil seed of Indian origin. J. of Oil Technol. Association of India, 87: 64-65.
SEVEREN, M. L.V., 1953, Aceituno seed fat. J. of the Ame. Oil Chem.Society, 30: 124–126.
SINGLETON, V.L., ORTHOFER, R. AND LAMUELA-RAVENTOS, R.M., 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299: 152–178.
TAUSSKY, H.H. AND SHORR, E., 1953, Micro-colorimetric method for the determination of inorganic phosphorus. J. of Biological Chem. 202: 675–685.
THOMPSON, D.B.AND ERDMAN, J.W., 1982, Phytic acid determination in soybeans. J. of Food Sci. 47: 513–517.
Published
2021-09-30
How to Cite
Shafiqi, S., Abad, Q., & ryan, Q. (2021). Toxicity levels in treated oil cakes of Simarouba glauca DC. IJO - International Journal of Agriculture and Research, 4(09), 01-08. Retrieved from http://ijojournals.com/index.php/ar/article/view/418