Physiological responses of Solanum nigrum L. Species to the heavy crude oil

  • Ghazala Ahmad Hamaden University of Benghazi, Faculty of Science,
Keywords: Solanum nigrum L. black nightshade, heavy crude oil, phytoremediation


The remediation of oil-contaminated soils has been a major problem in oil-producing countries.  Recently use of phytoremediation to clean such polluted sites has been on investigating.  In order to identify plants that can enhance the remediation, Solanum nigrum L. (black nightshade) was used on different concentrations (0.0,0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0,6.0,8.0,10.0 V/V) for  seed  germination and seedling  growth.  The results showed that seed germination and seedling performance were enhanced under heavy crude oil compounds.  This study indicates that black nightshade has more potential for resistance to crude oil concentrations and that can be used as promising tools for phytoremediation technology.

Author Biography

Ghazala Ahmad Hamaden, University of Benghazi, Faculty of Science,

 Botany Department, Benghazi – Libya..

of Benghazi, Benghazi – Libya.


Adam G. and Duncan H. (2002). Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination, Environmental Pollution. 120 (2): 363 - 370.

Adedokun OM. and Ataga AE. (2007). Effects of amendments and bioaugumentation of soil polluted with crude oil, automotive gasoline oil, and spent engine oil on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Sci. Res. Essay. 2 (5): 147 - 149.

Adenipekun CO. and Kassim L Q. (2006). Effects of spent engine oil on the growth parametersand moisture content of Celosia argentea Proceeding of the 15th Annual Botanical Society of Nigeria Conference, University of Uyo, Uyo. (4-8): 108 - 111.

Adenipekun CO. and Oyetunji O J. and Kassim L Q. (2009). Screening of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench for tolerance to spent engine Journal of Applied Biosci-ences. 20: 1131 - 1137.

Agbogidi1 O M (2011). Effects of crude oil contaminated soil on biomass accumulation in Jatropha curcas L. seedlings. Journal of ornamental and Horticultural Plants.1 (1): 43-49.
Agbogidi1 O M. and April E M. ( 2013). Ilondu2 Effects of spent engine oil on the germination and seedling growth of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Accepted 20.

Agbogidi MO. (2011b). Effects of crude oil contaminated soil on biomass accumulation in Jatropha curcas L. seedlings. J. Horti. Ornamental Plants. 1 (1): 39 - 45.

Anoliefo G O. and Edegbai B O. (2000). Effects of spent oil as oil contaminant on the growth of two eggplant species Solanium melongene and S. incanum. J. Agric. For. Fish.1: 21 - 25.

Anoliefo GO. and Edegbai BO. (2001). Effect of crude oil as a soil contaminant on the growth of two egg plant species, Solanum melongena L. and S. incanum. J Agricu Forestry and Fisheries. 1: 1 - 25.

Anoliefo GO. and Vwioko DE. (2001). Tolerance of Chromolaena odorata L. K. and R. grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricating oil. J. Trop. Biosci. 1 (1): 20 – 24.

Anon A. (2003). Remediation of petroleum contaminated media. J. Bioremed. 5: 445 - 560.

Bamidele JF. Igiri A. (2011). Growth of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) in soil contaminated with crude petroleum oil. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 15 (2): 303 - 306.

Bamidele JF. (2010). Threats to sustainable utilization of coastal wetlands in Nigeria. J. Nig. Environ. Soc. 5 (3): 217 - 225.

Baran S., Bielinska E J. and Wojeikowska-kapusta J. (2002). The formation of enzymatic activity of soil contaminated by petroleum products. Acta Agrophiscica. 70: 9 - 19.

Besalatpour AA., Hajabbasi MA., Khoshgof- Tarmanesh AH. and Afyuin M. (2008). Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils around the tehran oil refinery using phytostimulation method, J. Agric.Sci. Natur. Resour. 44: 13 - 23.

Debojit B., Jitu B. and Sarada KS. (2011). Impact of Assam petroleum crude oil on the germination of four crude oil-resistant species. Asian J. Plant Sci. Res. 1(3): 68 - 76.

Edema N. (2012). Effects of crude oil contaminated water on the environment. in: crude oil emulsions composition stability and characterization. [Manar El-Sayed Abdul-Raouf (Ed.)]. InTech Open Access Company. 9: 170 - 180.

Ekpo MA. and Nwaankpa IL. (2005). Effect of crude oil on microorganisms and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale)in the tropics. J. Sustainable Trop Agric Res. 16: 67 - 71.

EL- Baragathi MF. (1985). Effect of same soluble frctions of crude oil on germination and growth of same liban crop plants. M.SC. Plant physiology . University of. Tripoli.

Gairola KC., Nautiyal AR. and Dwivedi A K. (2011). Effect of temperatures and germination media on seed germination of Jatropha Curcas linn. 2 (2): 66 – 71.

Ikhajiagbe B. and Anoliefo G O. (2011). Natural attenuation of a 14- month-old waste engine oil polluted soil. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management. 2 (7): 184 - 192.

Kelechi LN., Moduje SA. and Temitope OB. (2012). African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 6 (1): 67 - 71.

Kirk JL., Kironomos JN., Lee H. and Trevors JT. (2002). Phytotoxicity assay to assess plant species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. Bioremediation Journal. 6 (1): 57 - 63.

Malek-Hossein S. and Gholamreza S. (2007). Study of growth and germination of Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) in light crude oil contaminated soil. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3 (1): 46 – 51.

Mut H., Ayan I., Basaran U., Onal-Asci O. and Acar Z. (2010). The effects of sheep manure application time and rates on yield and botanical composition of secondary succession rangeland. Afr. J. Biotech. 9 (23): 3388 – 3395.

Njoku KL. (2008). Evaluation of glycine max and lycopersicon esculentum in the remediation of crude oil polluted soil. Ph.D Thesis, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

Obi JC., Ogunkunle AO. and Meludu NT. (2008). Effect of termite infestation on the farming system and characteristics of an endemic area in the guinea savanna region of Nigeria. Am. Eurasian J. Sci. Res. 3: 1 - 6.

Odjegba VJ. and Atebe JO. (2007). The Effectof used engine oil on carbohydrate, mineral contentandNitrate reductase activity of leafy vegetable (Amaranthus Hybridus L.).JApp Sci and Enviro Mang. 11: 191 - 196.

Odjegba VJ. and Sadiq AO. (2002). Effects of spent engine oil on the growth parameters, chlorophyll and protein levels of Amaranthus hybridus L. Environmentalist. 22: 23 - 28.

Ogbo E M. (2009). Effects of diesel fuel contamination on seed germination of four crop plants - Arachis hypogaea,Vigna unguiculata, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays. African J. Biotechn. 8: 250 - 253.

Okpokwasili GC. and Odokuma LO. (2007). Effect of salinity on biodegradation of oil spills dispersants. WasteManagement. 10: 141 - 146.

Omosun G., Markson A A. and Mbanasor O. (2008). Growth and anatomy of Amaranthus Hybridus as affected by diferrent crude oil concentrations American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research. 3 (1): 70 - 74.

Opeolu BO. (2000). Effects of lead on the performance and nutrient quality of two cowpea varieties. M.Sc. Thesis, deperment of crop protection and environmental biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Otawa, Canada.1 - 74.

Pezeshki SR., Hester MW., Lin Q. and Nyman JA. (2000). The effects of oil spill and clean-up on dominant US gulf coast marsh macrophtes (Review), Environmental Pollution. 108: 129 - 139.

Puckett KJ., Nieboer E., Flora WP. and Richardson DHS. (2003). Sulphur dioxide: Its effect on photosynthetic C14 fixation in lichens and suggested mechanism of phytotoxicity. New Phytologist. 72: 141 - 154.

Quinones-Aquilar EE., Ferra-Cerrato R., Gavi FR. , Fernandez L., Rodriguez VR. and Alarcom A. ( 2003). Emergence and growth of maize in a crude oil polluted soil. Agrociencia. 37: 585 - 594.

Rastegar Z., Sedghi M. and Khomari S. (2011). Effects of accelerated aging on soybean seed germination indexes at laboratory conditions. Notulae Scientia Biologicae. 3 (3): 126 - 129.

Richard BG., Glenn SF., Christopher MR. and Bertkn RO. (2007). Oil spill source Identification by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC*GC) IN: Oil spill environmental forensics: fingerprinting and source. Eds: Wang Z. and Stout S. Pp. 169 - 206.

Rosso PH., Pushnik JC., Lay ML. and Ustin S. (2005). Reflectance properties and physiological responses of Salicornia virginica to heavy metal and petroleum contamination, Journal of Envir onmetal Pollution. 137: 241 - 252.

Seklemora E., Pavlora A. and Koracheva K. (2001). Biostimulation-basedbioremediation of diesel fuel field demonstration. Bio. 12: 311 - 316.

Sharifi M ., Sadeghi Y. and Akbarpour M. (2007). Germination and growth of six plant species on contaminated soil with spent oil. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 4: 463 - 470.

Sheta O., SanaT., Hnan S. and Gada F. (2013). Germination tolerance of four mutant lines of barley (Hordium vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and garden cress (Lipidium sativum L.) to crude oil contaminated soil Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering. A 2: 36 - 40.

Spiares JDE., Kenwrthy K. and Rhykerd R. (2001). Emegence and height of plants seeded in crude oil cont aminated Soil, Texas Journal of Agriculture and Natural Re-sources. 14: 37 - 46.

Teng Y., Shen Y., Luo Y., Sun X., Sun M. and Christie P. (2010). Influence of rhizobium meliloti on phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by alfala in an aged contaminated soil, Journal of Hazardous Materials. 10: 1 - 29.

Trapp S., Kohler A., Larsen LC., Zambrano KC. and Karlson U. (2001). Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees. J. Soils Sediment.1 (2): 71 - 76.

Verdeguer M., Blazquez M A. and Boira H. (2009). Phytotoxic effects of Lantana camara, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eriocephalus africanus essential oils in weeds of Mediterranean summer crops. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 37: 362 – 369.

Victor JO. and Sadiq AO. (2002). Effects of spent engine oil on the growth parameters chlorophyll and protein levels of Amaranthus hybridus L., Journal of The Environmentalist. 22: 23 - 28.

Wioko VD E. and Fashemi D S. (2005). Growth response of Ricinus cummunis L. (castor oil) in spent lubricating oil polluted soil. J. Applied Sci. Environ. Manage. 9 (2): 73 - 79.

Wang J., Jia CR., Wong CK. and Wong PK. (2000). Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon created in lubricating oils. Water, Air Pollut. 120: 381 - 396.

Wood TK., Mulchandani A. and Chen W. (2006). Engineering plant- microbe symbiosis for rhizoremediation of heavy metals. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72 (2): 1129 - 1134.

Xu JG. and Johnson RL. (1995). Root growth, microbial activity and phosphatase activity in oilcontaminated, remediated and uncontaminated soils planted to barley and field pea. Plant and Soil. 173: 3 - 10.

Yang Q., YE W., Deng X., Cao H., Zhang Y. and XU K. (2005). Seed germination eco-physiology of Mikania micrantha H.B.K. YBAotN. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 46: 293 – 299.

Zhang CG., Leung KK., Wong YS. and Tam NFY. (2007). Germination, growth and physiological responses of man-grove plant (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) to lubricating oil poll ution, Journal of Environmental and Experimental Botany. 60: 127 - 136.
How to Cite
Hamaden, G. A. (2021). Physiological responses of Solanum nigrum L. Species to the heavy crude oil. IJO - International Journal of Mathematics, 3(12), 65-83. Retrieved from